Manual Twenty-First Century Submarines and Warships

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Konetzni initiated the study, planning, and execution to return submarines to Guam, Marianas Islands. The increase in demand for the unique capability attack submarines offer the military and intelligence community was legitimate. Positioning hulls further west saved considerable transit time and kept them ready to respond more quickly to national tasking. It offered an opportunity to make more efficient use of our Pacific attack submarines in providing forward presence and crisis response and better meeting the requirements of the Seventh Fleet commander.

It provided a measure of reassurance to our friends and allies of our national commitment to the Western Pacific, as well as giving any potential adversary something more to consider. The resultant savings translated into an increase in the number of operating days available. Other remedies to improve efficiency included assignment of mini-AORs areas of responsibility so that missions, port visits, and support of tasking could be concentrated within one relatively localized area.

Concurrent training during exercises optimized the use of underway time. Vice Adm. But eventually it became like rearranging deck chairs on the Titanic. There was no way we could reconcile having too few attack subs and too many missions. Having a sufficient number of submarines available to meet the increased tasking assumed the Navy could operate them with qualified crews.

The ‘Battleship’: Does it have a purpose in the 21st century?

But the relentless pace of operations was having a corrosive effect on manning. Not surprisingly, a by-product of an over-tasked submarine force was dwindling morale. In , seven out of ten submarine Sailors would leave the Navy after their initial tour. Besides the parade of departures, there was an alarming trend in attrition.

How to build a submarine

One-in-four first-term submarine Sailors did not even fulfill their original enlistment contract. The investment in dollars and years spent schooling these nuclear power- and submarine-trained Sailors was eye-popping.

The attrition also made maintaining qualified submarine crews a pressing problem. Konetzni immediately made improving retention and reducing first-term attrition a focus point. For submarines between deployments, his staff reduced demands on the crews during the Inter-Deployment Training Cycle. Some inspections were consolidated, while others were deleted; hard-pressed engineering departments were better manned; in-port duty section rotations were improved; training was transferred off-ship so crews could concentrate without distraction; and an eight-hour in-port work day was encouraged, with a half-day off during the work week.

In one controversial initiative, he expected submariners who were not working out on one submarine be transferred to a different crew. The initiative was not unlike sorts teams who had a player traded who might have been failing expectations or underperforming. Konetzni was convinced that all some young people needed was a change of scenery or a second chance. One Sailor-friendly initiative Konetzni invested in was investing in conveyor-belts that made on-loading supplies pier side easier and faster for submarine crew members.

We had to get those boys some relief. First-term retention had doubled from 30 percent to 60 percent. The success in retaining talent even drew the attention of the Wall Street Journal in the form of a front-page story.

Part One (1900 - 1939)

His leadership, innovation and sense of history have proven crucial in what the U. National Security Strategy calls a great power completion. For years, China has been acquiring a navy that aims to challenge the U. Furthermore, China is using predatory economics to intimidate its neighbors while militarizing features in the South China Sea. Elsewhere Russia has violated the borders of nearby nations and pursues veto power over the economic, diplomatic, and security decisions of its neighbors.

Twenty-first century submarines and warships /general editor, Peter Darman. – National Library

China and Russia are deploying all elements of their national power to achieve their global ambitions. The U. Blake Converse. History favors a prepared Navy. Geography, time and precedent would see to it undersea forces could be more efficiently operated and commanded. The squadron was originally established on Sept.

The squadron had responsibility the submarine-based nuclear deterrent in the Pacific. As the Ohio-class ballistic missile submarines and support facilities came on line, the squadron was deactivated at the end of September, The squadron was reactivated Feb. The nation is stronger and better equipped to accomplish its mission to assure regional allies and deter potential adversaries by increasing the submarine force presence in the Western Pacific.

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Qualified U. Navy forces, especially Pacific submarines, will allow Pacific nations to operate and prosper in a maritime environment that values an established and enduring international framework of norms, standards, rules and laws. She is unsuitable for the pomp and ceremony for which war vessels of all nations are in such great demand and she is hardly the ideal vehicle for carrying a Head of State on official visits.

Patrol duty was far from safe; of the 67 British destroyers lost in the war, collisions accounted for 18, while 12 were wrecked. At the end of the war, the state-of-the-art was represented by the British W class. The trend during World War I had been towards larger destroyers with heavier armaments. A number of opportunities to fire at capital ships had been missed during the War, because destroyers had expended all their torpedoes in an initial salvo.

The British V and W classes of the late war had sought to address this by mounting six torpedo tubes in two triple mounts, instead of the four or two on earlier models. The 'V' and 'W's set the standard of destroyer building well into the s. This was largely due to the fact that, between their commissioning in and , they retained the armament that they had while serving in the Italian Navy as scout cruisers esploratori. The two Romanian warships were thus the destroyers with the greatest firepower in the world throughout much of the interwar period.

As of , when the Second World War started, their artillery, although changed, was still close to cruiser standards, amounting to nine heavy naval guns five of mm and four of 76 mm. In addition, they retained their two twin mm torpedo tubes as well as two machine guns, plus the capacity to carry up to 50 mines. The next major innovation came with the Japanese Fubuki class or 'special type', designed in and delivered in The later Hatsuharu class of further improved the torpedo armament by storing its reload torpedoes close at hand in the superstructure, allowing reloading within 15 minutes.

Most other nations replied with similar larger ships.

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In the Mediterranean, the Italian Navy's building of very fast light cruisers of the Condottieri class prompted the French to produce exceptional destroyer designs. The Fantasque class of carried five millimetres 5. Germany started to build destroyers again during the s as part of Hitler's rearmament program. This changed from the Type onwards, which mounted heavy millimetres 5. German destroyers also used innovative high-pressure steam machinery: while this should have helped their efficiency, it more often resulted in mechanical problems.

Once German and Japanese rearmament became clear, the British and American navies consciously focused on building destroyers that were smaller but more numerous than those used by other nations. Realizing the need for heavier gun armament, the British built the Tribal class of sometimes called Afridi after one of two lead ships. These were followed by the J-class and L-class destroyers, with six 4. Anti-submarine weapons changed little, and ahead-throwing weapons, a need recognized in World War I, had made no progress.

During the s and s destroyers were often deployed to areas of diplomatic tension or humanitarian disaster. British and American destroyers were common on the Chinese coast and rivers, even supplying landing parties to protect colonial interests. By World War II the threat had evolved once again. Submarines were more effective, and aircraft had become important weapons of naval warfare; once again the early-war fleet destroyers were ill-equipped for combating these new targets.

They were fitted with new light anti-aircraft guns, radar , and forward-launched ASW weapons, in addition to their existing dual-purpose guns , depth charges , and torpedoes. By this time the destroyers had become large, multi-purpose vessels, expensive targets in their own right. As a result, casualties on destroyers were among the highest. The need for large numbers of anti-submarine ships led to the introduction of smaller and cheaper specialized anti-submarine warships called corvettes and frigates by the Royal Navy and destroyer escorts by the USN. A similar programme was belatedly started by the Japanese see Matsu -class destroyer.

These ships had the size and displacement of the original torpedo boat destroyers that the contemporary destroyer had evolved from. Some conventional destroyers were completed in the late s and s which built on wartime experience.

These vessels were significantly larger than wartime ships and had fully automatic main guns, unit Machinery, radar, sonar, and antisubmarine weapons such as the Squid mortar. Some World War II—vintage ships were modernized for anti-submarine warfare, and to extend their service lives, to avoid having to build expensive brand-new ships.

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  • The advent of surface-to-air missiles and surface-to-surface missiles , such as the Exocet , in the early s changed naval warfare. Guided missile destroyers DDG in the US Navy were developed to carry these weapons and protect the fleet from air, submarine and surface threats.